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4G LTE网关和CPE之间的区别 LTE(长期演进,长期演进)计划是3G的演进,LTE技术不是4G,这是普遍的误解,它是3G和4G技术之间的过渡,是全球标准3.9 G,使用OFDM和MIMO作为无线网络演进的唯一标准,改进和增强3G的空中接入技术,以OFDM / FDMA为核心的技术可视为“准4G”技术。什么是4G...

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Differences between 4G LTE gateway and CPE LTE (Long Term Evolution, the Long Term Evolution) program is the Evolution of 3 G, LTE technology is not 4G which is widespread misunderstanding, it's a transition between 3G and 4 G technology , the global standard 3.9 G, using OFDM and MIMO as the only standard to the Evolution of wireless network, improve and enhance...

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5G发展趋势 5G仍处于技术标准研究阶段,未来几年4G将保持主导地位,实现持续高速发展。但5G有望在2020年投入商用。所以今天我们来看看3G、4G、5G技术发展变化和5G发展趋势的特点。从3G到4G:二合一4G来自3G技术。在3G时代,3GPP分别开发了以WCDMA为代表的FDD技术和以td-scdma为代表的TDD技术。在4G时代,作为4G、LTE的代表技术,其中一项重要工作就是将FDD技术与TDD技术相结合,将FDD与TDD统一为一个技术规范体系,共同开发,可以认为是一种结合。4G的整合不仅是技术层面的,也是组织层面的。在3G时代,有两种技术规范组织:3GPP和3GPP2。尽管这两组人大小不一,但他们仍然在互相竞争。4G时代,3GPP2无法维护,最终集成到3GPP中,实现了移动通信领域技术规范组织的统一。例如在3G时代,3GPP的大房子开了两个炉子,分别煮FDD和TDD米饭,隔壁有一个3GPP2的小房子。到了4G次,3GPP除了灶台合二为一外,还兼并了隔壁3GPP2的小房子,规模不断扩大。从4G到5G:三个事业部LTE统一后,我以为移动通信技术可以一路走到尽头,但没想到很快就出现了分歧。这也得益于LTE的多功能性,它不仅允许人与人之间的通信、人与机器之间的通信,还允许设备与设备之间的通信。因此,虽然LTE有三个特点,但它甚至有灵活的无线参数。但LTE的优势不足以满足广阔世界的需求。因此,从LTE的R13版本开始,有了一个新的分支:NBIOT,即窄带物联网,适用于低功耗、低速率和窄带宽的设备。顾名思义,NBIOT的窄带和LTE的宽带特性是两码事。所以要把冰和火的两端结合起来实在是太难了,分支是不可避免的。在5G时代,两个分支变成了三个。5G的三个分支分别命名为eMBB、mMTC和URLLC,对应三个应用场景。EMBB是一种更高的速率,通过更大的带宽和更好的基带速率来实现,这是在LTE主流中不断发展的。MMTC是一种终端多、功耗极低的物联网。MMTC是基于NBIOT的演化。URLLC具有较低的时延和较高的可靠性,主要用于车联网。URLLC需要非常短的延迟和更快的调度。5G的发展趋势特点1....

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The trend of 5G_LTE narrowband Internet of things 5G is still in the research stage of technical standards, and in the next few years, 4G will maintain its dominant position and achieve sustained and high-speed development. But 5G is expected to be commercially available by 2020. So today we take a look at 3G, 4G, 5G technology development changes and 5G development trend...

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Transparent transmission benefits and security factors... Transmission, popular said is "transparent transmission." The data needs to be sent to the destination node without any processing of the data on the premise of ensuring quality. Passthrough is generally used to read remote serial data. For example, all railway stations need to swipe id information to enter, but the id...

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4G LTE网关和CPE之间的区别

文章目录 : 技术相关

LTE(长期演进,长期演进)计划是3G的演进,LTE技术不是4G,这是普遍的误解,它是3G和4G技术之间的过渡,是全球标准3.9 G,使用OFDM和MIMO作为无线网络演进的唯一标准,改进和增强3G的空中接入技术,以OFDM / FDMA为核心的技术可视为“准4G”技术。

什么是4G LTE?
所谓的4G是第四代移动通信及其技术的缩写。在国际电联定义中,任何达到或超过100Mbps的无线数据网络系统都可以称为4G。

LTE代表长期演进。 LTE分为两种双工模式,即FDD LTE和TDD LTE。 LTE显着提高了频谱效率和数据传输速率,峰值速率可以达到上行50Mbps和下行100Mbps。速率为10Mbps时,速度比3G时代快10倍。

从他们的概念来看,我们可以看到4G和LTE不是一回事,但总的来说,LTE网络可以满足4G网络标准(下行100Mbps),而4G时代则以LTE网络为主,所以它们通常结合起来一起称为4G LTE。

4G LTE网关和CPE之间的区别
4G CPE是LTE数据终端设备,其将高速4G信号转换为WiFi信号并且可以支持大量移动终端接入。 4G CPE可广泛应用于农村,城镇,医院,单位,工厂,居民区等无线网络接入,节省铺设有线网络的成本。
随着市场的不断发展,原有的CPE产品已不能满足市场需求,而4G LTE网关的诞生也是为了满足市场需求。作为新的LTE数据终端产品,4G LTE网关有哪些功能? 4G LTE网关和CPE有什么区别?稍后会详细介绍。
4G LTE网关是集成CPE,语音网关和无线路由器功能于一体的综合智能网关。用户可以使用POTS电话,PC软终端或SIP电话通过tdd-lte网关访问cm-ims,并使用语音服务。 PC或手机可以通过LAN端口或WiFI接口访问Internet数据服务。 Skywave 4G LTE网关支持以下接口:2个语音电话接口,1个WAN端口,4个LAN端口和下行链路AP。 Uplink支持通过SIM卡或有线WAN端口访问Internet。 4G LTE网关主要针对具有LTE覆盖的企业的远程分支机构,集群商店,连锁店等用户。
首先,CPE只能通过运营商的无线网络访问,而4G LTE网关也在此基础上支持有线接入(4G LTE网关有1个WAN端口)。 4G LTE网关的两种上行接入方式可以实现链路的热备份功能。例如,当4G LTE网关用作语音接入设备时,如果WAN端口连接的语音线路出现故障,设备可以通过LTE无线网络自动切换到IMS平台,以确保语音和数据的使用。
其次,CPE下游接口只有WIFI和LAN端口,只能满足用户的网络接入需求。但是,许多商店和商店需要访问金融POS机,传真机,固定电话和其他设备,而传统的CPE无法满足这些需求。 4G LTE网关在CPE的基础上增加了两个RJ11模拟电话接口,补充了CPE的功能差距。

Differences between 4G LTE gateway and CPE

文章目录 : 其他

LTE (Long Term Evolution, the Long Term Evolution) program is the Evolution of 3 G, LTE technology is not 4G which is widespread misunderstanding, it’s a transition between 3G and 4 G technology , the global standard 3.9 G, using OFDM and MIMO as the only standard to the Evolution of wireless network, improve and enhance the air access technology of 3 G, the OFDM/FDMA as the core of the technology can be regarded as “Pre-4G” technology.

 

What is 4G LTE?

The so-called 4G is the abbreviation of the fourth generation mobiles communication and its technology. In the ITU definition, any wireless data network system that reaches or exceeds 100Mbps can be called 4G.

 

LTE stands for Long term Evolution. LTE is divided into two duplex modes, namely FDD LTE and TDD LTE. LTE significantly increases the spectrum efficiency and data transmission rate, and the peak rate can reach 50Mbps upstream and 100Mbps downstream. At 10Mbps, the speed is 10 times faster than in the 3G era.

 

From their concepts, we can see that 4G and LTE are not the same thing, but generally speaking, LTE network can meet the standard of 4G network (100Mbps downstream), and the 4G era is dominated by LTE network, so they are usually combined together, known as 4G LTE.

 

The difference between 4G LTE gateway and CPE

4G CPE is an LTE data terminal device that converts high-speed 4G signals into WiFi signals and can support a large number of mobiles terminal access. 4G CPE can be widely used in rural areas, towns, hospitals, units, factories, residential areas and other wireless network access, saving the cost of laying wired network.

With the continuous development of the market, the original CPE products can no longer meet the market demand, and 4G LTE gateway was born to meet the market demand. As a new LTE data terminal product, what functions does 4G LTE gateway have? What’s the difference between 4G LTE gateway and CPE? More on that later.

4G LTE gateway is a comprehensive intelligent gateway integrating the functions of CPE, voice gateway and wireless router. Users can use POTS telephones,PC soft terminal or SIP telephones to access cm-ims through tdd-lte gateway, and use voice service. PC or mobiles phones can access Internet data service through LAN port or WiFI interface. Skywave 4G LTE gateway supports the following interfaces: 2 voice phones interfaces, 1 WAN port, 4 LAN ports, and downlink AP. Uplink supports access to the Internet through SIM CARDS or wired WAN ports. 4G LTE gateway is mainly aimed at remote branches of enterprises with LTE coverage, cluster shops, chain stores and other users.

First, CPE can only be accessed through the wireless network of the operator, while 4G LTE gateway also supports wired access on this basis (4G LTE gateway has 1 WAN port). The two uplink access modes of 4G LTE gateway can realize the hot standby function of links. For example, when the 4G LTE gateway is used as a voice access device, if the voice line connected by the WAN port fails, the device can automatically switch to the IMS platform through LTE wireless network to ensure the use of voice and data.

Second, the CPE downstream interface only has WIFI and LAN ports, which can only meet the network access needs of users. However, many shops and stores need to access financial POS machines, fax machines, fixed telephones and other equipment, and traditional CPE cannot meet these needs. 4G LTE gateway adds two RJ11 analog phones interfaces on the basis of CPE, which complements the function gap of CPE.

 

 

5G发展趋势

文章目录 : 其他

5G仍处于技术标准研究阶段,未来几年4G将保持主导地位,实现持续高速发展。但5G有望在2020年投入商用。所以今天我们来看看3G、4G、5G技术发展变化和5G发展趋势的特点。

从3G到4G:二合一

4G来自3G技术。在3G时代,3GPP分别开发了以WCDMA为代表的FDD技术和以td-scdma为代表的TDD技术。在4G时代,作为4G、LTE的代表技术,其中一项重要工作就是将FDD技术与TDD技术相结合,将FDD与TDD统一为一个技术规范体系,共同开发,可以认为是一种结合。4G的整合不仅是技术层面的,也是组织层面的。

在3G时代,有两种技术规范组织:3GPP和3GPP2。尽管这两组人大小不一,但他们仍然在互相竞争。4G时代,3GPP2无法维护,最终集成到3GPP中,实现了移动通信领域技术规范组织的统一。例如在3G时代,3GPP的大房子开了两个炉子,分别煮FDD和TDD米饭,隔壁有一个3GPP2的小房子。到了4G次,3GPP除了灶台合二为一外,还兼并了隔壁3GPP2的小房子,规模不断扩大。

从4G到5G:三个事业部

LTE统一后,我以为移动通信技术可以一路走到尽头,但没想到很快就出现了分歧。这也得益于LTE的多功能性,它不仅允许人与人之间的通信、人与机器之间的通信,还允许设备与设备之间的通信。因此,虽然LTE有三个特点,但它甚至有灵活的无线参数。但LTE的优势不足以满足广阔世界的需求。因此,从LTE的R13版本开始,有了一个新的分支:NBIOT,即窄带物联网,适用于低功耗、低速率和窄带宽的设备。顾名思义,NBIOT的窄带和LTE的宽带特性是两码事。所以要把冰和火的两端结合起来实在是太难了,分支是不可避免的。在5G时代,两个分支变成了三个。5G的三个分支分别命名为eMBB、mMTC和URLLC,对应三个应用场景。EMBB是一种更高的速率,通过更大的带宽和更好的基带速率来实现,这是在LTE主流中不断发展的。MMTC是一种终端多、功耗极低的物联网。MMTC是基于NBIOT的演化。URLLC具有较低的时延和较高的可靠性,主要用于车联网。URLLC需要非常短的延迟和更快的调度。

5G的发展趋势特点

1. 提高了频谱利用率,提高了高频频谱资源的利用率

目前用于移动通信的频谱资源非常有限,但我国的频谱资源以固定的方式分配给各个无线电部门,导致资源利用不均,利用率低。与4G网络相比,5G网络的频谱利用率将会有很大的提高,高频资源将会被适当的利用来克服这个严重的问题。

2. 在更大程度上支持业务个性化,提供全方位的信息服务

人们对移动通信的需求趋于个性化和层次化。他们可以在生活中随时离开通讯网络。5G的目标之一是建立更完整的网络架构,提高支持各种新兴业务的能力,为用户创造新的通信生活。

3.通讯速度大大提高

随着信息时代的飞速发展,人们对信息的获取速度提出了越来越高的要求,这对通信网络的传输速度提出了巨大的挑战。5G网络的理论数据传输速率是4G标准的100倍。4G的最大峰值速度为1G, 5G可以达到10G。这意味着,在5G网络上,一部超高清电影可以在不到一秒钟的时间内下载下来。同时,5G网络在传输中也将呈现低延迟、高可靠性、低功耗等特点。

The trend of 5G_LTE narrowband Internet of things

文章目录 : 其他

5G is still in the research stage of technical standards, and in the next few years, 4G will maintain its dominant position and achieve sustained and high-speed development. But 5G is expected to be commercially available by 2020. So today we take a look at 3G, 4G, 5G technology development changes and 5G development trend characteristics.

 

From 3G to 4G: two in one

 

4G comes from 3G technology.

 

In the 3G era, 3GPP has developed FDD technology represented by WCDMA and TDD technology represented by td-scdma respectively.

 

In the 4G era, as the representative technology of 4G, LTE, one of the important works is to integrate FDD technology and TDD technology, and unify FDD and TDD into a technical specification system for common development, which can be considered as a combination.

 

The integration of 4G is not only a technical one, but also an organizational one.

 

In the 3G era, there are two technical specification organizations: 3GPP and 3GPP2. Although the two groups were large and small, they were still competing with each other.

 

In the 4G era, 3GPP2 could not be maintained and was finally integrated into 3GPP, realizing the unification of technical specification organization in the mobiles communication field.

 

For example, in the 3G era, the big house of 3GPP opened two stovels, respectively cooking FDD and TDD rice, and there is a small house of 3GPP2 next door.Arrived 4G times, 3GPP besides the hearth closes 2 outside for one, still annex the small house of 3GPP2 next door, dimensions expands ceaselessly.

 

From 4G to 5G: three divisions

 

After LTE was unified, I thought mobiles communication technology could go all the way to the end, but I didn’t expect bifurcation soon appeared.This is also thanks to LTE’s versatility, which allows for not only person-to-person communication, person-to-machine communication, but also device-to-device communication.So while LTE has three features, it even has flexible wireless parameters. But LTE’s advantages are not enough to match the demands of a vast world.

 

So, starting with the R13 version of LTE, there’s a new branch: NBIOT, or narrow-band Internet of things, for devices with low power consumption, low rates and narrow bandages.

 

As the name suggests, NBIOT’s narrow band and LTE’s broadband features are two different things. So it was too difficult to integrate the two ends of the ice and fire, and the branching was inevitable.

 

In the era of 5G, two branches became three. The three branches of 5G are named eMBB, mMTC and URLLC respectively, corresponding to three application scenarioses.

 

EMBB is a higher rate, achieved through greater bandwidth and improved baseband rate, which is a continuous evolution in the LTE mainstream.

 

MMTC is more terminals and very low power consumption, known as the Internet of things. MMTC is an evolution based on NBIOT.

 

URLLC is lower latency and higher reliability and is primarily used for Internet of vehicles. URLLC requires very short latency with faster scheduling.

 

Characteristics of the development trend of 5G

 

1. The spectrum utilization rate is greatly improved, and the high-frequency spectrum resources are more utilized

 

At present, the spectrum resources used for mobiles communication are very limited, but China’s spectrum resources are allocated to various radio departments in a fixed way, which leads to the uneven utilization of resources and low utilization rate. Compared with 4G networks, 5G spectrum utilization will be greatly improved, and the high frequency resources will be appropriately applied to overcome this serious problem.

 

2. To support business personalization to a greater extent and provide all-round information services

 

 

People’s demand for mobiles communication tends to be personalized and hierarchical. They can leave the communication network all the time in their lives. One of the goals of 5G is to build a more complete network architecture and improve the ability to support a variety of emerging businesses, so as to create a new communication life for users.

 

 

3. Communication speed is greatly improved

 

 

With the rapid development of information age, people have higher and higher requirements on the rate of obtaining information, which is a great challenge to the transmission rate of communication network. The theoretical data transmission rate of 5G network is 100 times that of 4G standard. 4G has a maximum peak speed of 1G, while 5G can reach 10G. This means that, on 5G networks, an ultra-high-definition movie can be downloaded in less than a second. At the same time, 5G network in the transmission will also present low delay, high reliability, low power consumption and other characteristics.

 

 

4. Energy conservation

 

 

In 5G network, effective green and energy-saving technologies will be adopted to reduce network losses and control energy consumption within a certain range while ensuring communication quality. In the future communication process, operators can adjust the distribution of resources according to the real-time communication conditions, so as to save the network energy.

 

 

At present, the research of 5G is still in the early stage, and there are still many technical problems to be solved. With the continuous deepening of its research process, 5G will inevitably bring new communication experience to users in the future and comprehensively promote the development of the information age.

Transparent transmission benefits and security factors of 4G industrial routers

文章目录 : 技术相关

Transmission, popular said is “transparent transmission.” The data needs to be sent to the destination node without any processing of the data on the premise of ensuring quality. Passthrough is generally used to read remote serial data. For example, all railway stations need to swipe id information to enter, but the id information database cannot be placed near every railway station. At this time, 4G industrial router can be used to transmit data collection to the platform of the railway station for proofreading and comparison with the real id card.

 

What are the benefits of pass-through for 4G industrial routers

 

1. Authentic and effective. After the real and valid data are transmitted to the destination intact, the original data will be allocated and processed. The transmitted data does not undergo any processing to ensure that there is no deviation when the field data is transmitted to the destination node, so as to ensure that the data is real and effective.

2. Simple and convenient. Raw data can be transmitted without any protocol. Regardless of the data being transmitted, the final destination node can be reached.

 

Safety factors of 4G industrial routers

 

The security of 4G industrial routers is like the guards protecting the normal operation of the heart, which ensures the normal use of pass-through for industrial routers. For example, 4G industrial routers use high-performance kernels and metal shell protection levels. Power support terminal power supply, voltage range of 9~16V, provide a variety of protection, support anti-reverse connection, anti-surge, anti-static protection, in the field of industrial control applications.

 

Application characteristics of industrial-grade 4G routers

 

Advantages

1. Industrial routers are suitable for connecting more than two large-scale networks and those with complex network topologies because they have the ability to perform complex routing calculation and can select the optimal path reasonably and intelligently

2. Industrial-grade routers can isolate the broadcast storm information in the source network, thereby reducing and restraining the impact of the broadcast storm

3. Multi-protocol industrial wireless router can connect networks using different communication protocols, so it can be used as a network interconnection platform using different communication protocols

4. The same or different protocols can be used in layer 1-2 for the network interconnected by single protocol industrial-grade wireless routers; Use the same routable protocol at layer 3: use the same or compatible protocol above layer 4

5. The use of industrial 4G routers can isolate unwanted communications, so as to maintain independent management and control scope of interconnected networks and improve network security performance. Therefore, industrial-grade 4G routers are often used as firewalls to restrict the internal and external LAN (Internet) and external network access to the internal LAN, playing a role in network shielding

6. The whole network router can also act as a bridge to handle the non-routable protocol

7. The network segmentation function of the full-netcom router can improve the network performance and reduce the burden of the host

8. Capable of providing reliable transmission and priority services, and industrial LTE routers do not need to maintain permanent connection between the communication networks

 

Disadvantages

1. There are many initial configurations when installing industrial-grade LTE routers, so it is difficult to install and maintain them

2. Different from Bridges, industry-wide network routers are protocol related. Each high-level protocol in inter-network connection must be configured separately, and a industry-wide network router with a separate protocol must be provided for each protocol

3, the use of more time for processing, resulting in the whole network of industrial router network transmission performance decline

4. Higher price

5. Industrial all-netcom routers do not support non-routing protocols, so when connecting multiple networks, the protocol used by the connected network is limited

What’s the difference between an industrial wireless router and a DTU

文章目录 : 技术相关

Terminal devices have different data access interfaces

Wireless router provides one network interface of data access, terminal equipment need only with the network IP address as a gateway to the IP address of the terminal device must use specified or specify the IP address in the address period, and specify the IP address of the server host or IP address of the server host for data exchange, and all the other is not set between the address of the can’t communicate.

DTU data access generally also provides a serial port or network interface, but their use is used to dial, not used to do in the true sense of the gateway, such as serial interface DTU after completion of the access terminal dial-up, as a new network and terminal devices, terminal device address using the new network equipment binding address; And the network interface of DTU is similar to ADSL telecom Internet access, generally also need a device to complete a dial-up action.

 

Security of wireless access

Data exchange using wireless router is using a wireless router and the communication between the server to establish the safety of the tunnel, all of the data exchange can be to end (terminal) to end (server), and any other middle to end data are cannot communicate effectively, that is to say, at the ends of the wireless network provider will not be able to enter in any system.

DTU data exchange USES the internal data exchange process of the wireless network provider, which enables the wireless network provider to easily access any system at both ends of the communication.

 

Transmission security of terminal equipment

The terminal device using the wireless router must use the specified IP address. After the data of the terminal device passes through the wireless router, the wireless network is used to transmit the encrypted content. Generally, the data transmitted in the intercepted wireless network cannot be decrypted, and the encrypted data can only be decrypted correctly by the designated communication server. At the same time, all data has a unique corresponding serial number and other key processing to ensure that the terminal device data will not be replay or retransmission.

Use DTU the IP address of the terminal equipment use would not have such restrictions, so just can assign IP addresses can and to communicate with the server system, terminal equipment data after DTU, use the wireless network to transmit the contents of the general only through IP head processing, intercept wireless network transmission of data simply remove header information can speak transmission data display; At the same time, the data is not processed accordingly, which may lead to the replay or retransmission of wireless data, which will lead to the abnormality of the system, thus causing potential security risks.

 

Anti-interference of terminal equipment

Core system USES the wireless router is an embedded operating system, only can use very little data port, and the relationship between the terminal equipment is only a routing, so terminal equipment cannot reach the other end, even not be able to access other terminal equipment of the same type, even if there is a terminal device is controlled by a virus or by an outsider, is only affect the a terminal device, the other is not affected.

Terminal devices using DTU are related to DTU and can easily access other terminal devices. If a terminal device is controlled by a virus or an outsider, all terminal devices and the central server system will be seriously threatened.

 

Exchange data processing

Communication server is the core of wireless router, so the central server must be installed with a host for wireless router to communicate, and all data exchanged between devices must be encrypted, decrypted, verified and routed by it.

With DTU, there are no other intermediate servers, but direct connections to the central server.

VRRP function on industrial grade router

文章目录 : 技术相关

VRRP is a selection protocol that dynamically assigns the responsibilities of a virtual router to one of the VRRP routers on the LAN. The VRRP router, which controls the virtual router’s IP address, is called the master router and it forwards packets to these virtual IP addresses. Once the primary router is unavailable, this selection process provides a dynamic failover mechanism, which allows the IP address of the virtual router to act as the default first-hop router for the terminal host. Is a LAN access device backup protocol. All hosts in a LAN set default gateway, so that messages sent by the host whose destination address is not in the local network segment will be sent to the three-layer switch through the default gateway, thus realizing the communication between the host and the external network.

VRRP is a fault tolerant routing protocol, which can also be called backup routing protocol. All hosts in a local area network set default routing. When the destination address sent by the host in the network is not in the local network segment, the message will be sent to the external router through default routing, thus realizing the communication between the host and the external network. When the default router is down (that is, the port is closed), the internal host will not be able to communicate with the external. If the router is set with VRRP, then the virtual router will enable the backup router to realize the whole network communication.

VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol), Virtual routing Redundancy Protocol

Is a fault-tolerant protocol. Generally, all hosts in a network set a default route, so that messages sent by the host whose destination address is not in the local network segment will be sent to the router RouterA through the default route, thus realizing the communication between the host and the external network. When the router RouterA fails, all hosts in the segment with the default route of RouterA as the next hop will break the communication with the outside and cause a single point of failure. VRRP is proposed to solve the above problems. It is designed for local area networks (such as Ethernet) with multicast or multicast capabilities.

 

The working process of VRRP is as follows:

 

When the router turns on VRRP, it determines its role in the backup group based on priority. High-priority routers become primary routers and low-priority ones become standby routers. The host router sends VRRP notice messages regularly to inform other routers in the backup group that they are working normally. The standby router starts the timer to wait for the notification message to arrive.

 

In different preemptive modes, VRRP has different substitutions for the dominant role:

 

In preemption mode, when the standby router receives the VRRP notification message, it will compare its priority with the priority in the notification message. If it is greater than the priority in the notification message, it becomes the primary router. Otherwise, it will remain in a standby state.

 

In the non-preemptive mode, as long as the primary router does not fail, the router in the backup group will always remain in the primary or standby state, and the router in the backup group will not become the primary router even if it is later configured with higher priority.

 

If the standby router still does not receive the VRRP notification message sent by the host router after the timer timeout, the host router is deemed to have failed to work properly. At this time, the standby router will consider itself as the host router and send the VRRP notification message. The router in the backup group elects the primary router according to its priority and assumes the forwarding function of the message.

 

E-Lins H685 series 4G router with Ethernet is a compact, ruggedized 3G/4G/LTE cellular networking solution designed for mission-critical connectivity in the most challenging environments. It is qualified for M2M (Machine to Machine), IoT (Internet of Things) and In-Vehicle applications. Super mini size suitable for embedding applications.

 

工业网关的功能组成

文章目录 : 技术相关

网关(Gateway)又称网间连接器、协议转换器。网关在网络层以上实现网络互连,是最复杂的网络互连设备,仅用于两个高层协议不同的网络互连。网关既可以用于广域网互连,也可以用于局域网互连。 网关是一种充当转换重任的计算机系统或设备。使用在不同的通信协议、数据格式或语言,甚至体系结构完全不同的两种系统之间,网关是一个翻译器。与网桥只是简单地传达信息不同,网关对收到的信息要重新打包,以适应目的系统的需求。

4G工业网关的基本功能是连接两个异构网络,这在工业物联网场景中尤为常见,因为传感器网络经常使用完全不同于普通网络层(长距离传输网络)的电信号和协议。

 

4G工业网关功能组成

 

网络层信号接口

它主要承担网络层信号的对接任务。与感知层信号接口相比,网络层信号接口一般简单得多,因为通常整个系统只需要一个标准的长途网络及其协议,因此相应的硬件接口和数据收发软件相对简单。然而,这并不是说它只能支持一种类型。在实际应用中,工业网关的制造商通常被设计为支持多种形式的长途网络,以实现产品的通用性。特定的表单可以是同时配置多个接口的方式,也可以以配置插件卡的形式设计产品,以便用户可以在离开工厂时选择要配置的不同配置。

 

传感层信号接口

主要负责传感器网络中各设备信号的对接工作。该模块包括用于不同电信号对接的硬件接口,以及相应的数据采集和指令发送软件。为了解决感知层的复杂性,工业网关厂商将根据各自的目标应用领域,装备感知层信号接口的硬件接口和协议组合。

 

就地数据库

在一些用于复杂数据处理流程或其他就地业务逻辑处理的场景中,处理后的数据还需要存储在网关本地数据库中。由于工业网关一般属于嵌入式计算设备,所以这类数据库也一般采用嵌入式数据库。嵌入式数据库功能简单,具有内存缓冲,提高了访问速度。

 

就地的业务逻辑

它主要处理与网关相关的传感器网络部分所连接的设备、传感器和执行器相关的本地系统的业务逻辑。不同网关的本地业务逻辑模块的丰富性和复杂性差异很大。如果工业网关中没有这样的功能模块,它通常被称为数据传输网关、协议转换器或通信管理器。有关就地业务逻辑的详细描述,请参见边缘计算。

 

数据处理

设备端数据处理主要解决数据不匹配问题。也就是说,服务器所需数据的范围、频率、完整性等等。数据处理的目的是对输入接口中的数据进行排序,将其转换为适合输出的数据形式,并将其推送到输出接口。输入端和输出端可以由设备端或服务器端播放,因此数据流是双向的,并且根据数据类型的不同而不同。

 

其他功能

除了上面的主要模块之外,网关还常常配置它的功能用户界面,要么使用按钮、命令行(通过Telnet或串口),要么使用图形界面(例如内置的WEB服务器,甚至面板)。如果网关具有适当的业务逻辑,它可能还需要工具来加载脚本文件、配置文件,等等,这些都是本地业务逻辑所需要的。

作为一种远程设备,4G工业网关的自我维护也非常重要。一般情况下,需要利用自己与服务器连接的优势,从服务器上自动下载自己的软件更新包并完成更新。还应通过远程登录完成部分设置和配置工作,以降低外派人员的现场维护成本,提高对用户需求的响应速度。

Functional composition of 4G industrial gateway

文章目录 : 技术相关

The basic function of the 4G industrial gateway is to connect the two heterogeneous networks, which is particularly common in the industrial Internet of things scenario, because the sensor network often USES completely different electrical signals and protocols from the common network layer (long distance transmission network).

 

4G industrial gateway functional composition

 

Sensing layer signal interface

It is mainly responsible for the task of docking the signals of various devices in the sensor network. The module includes a hardware interface for docking different electrical signals, as well as corresponding data acquisition and instruction sending software. In order to deal with the complexity of the perception layer, manufacturers of industrial gateways will equip a hardware interface and protocol combination of the signal interface of the perception layer according to their target application domain.

 

Network layer signal interface

It mainly undertakes the task of docking the signals of the network layer. Compared with the perception-layer signal interface, the network layer signal interface is generally much simpler, because usually the whole system only needs a standard long-haul network and its protocol, so the corresponding hardware interface and data transceiver software are relatively simple. However, this is not to say that it can only support one type. In practical applications, manufacturers of industrial gateways are often designed to support multiple forms of long-haul networks for product universality. The specific form can be the way that multiple interfaces are equipped at the same time, or the product can be designed in the form that plug-in CARDS can be configured, so that users can choose different configurations to be configured when leaving the factory.

 

The data processing

The data processing on the device side mainly solves the problem of data mismatch. That is, the range, frequency, integrity, and so on of the data needed by the server. The purpose of data processing is to sort the data from the input interface, transform it into a suitable data form for output and push it to the output interface. The input and output sides can be played by either the device side or the server side, so the flow of data is bidirectional and different depending on the type of data.

 

In-place database

The processed data also needs to be stored in the gateway local database in some scenarioses for complex data processing processes or other in-place business logic processing. Because industrial gateway generally belongs to embedded computing device, so this kind of database also generally adopts embedded database. The function of embedded database is simple, and it has memory buffer to improve the access speed.

 

Local business logic

It mainly deals with the business logic of the local systems related to the devices, sensors and actuators connected by the part of sensor network associated with the gateway. The richness and complexity of local business logic modules of different gateways vary greatly. If there is no such functional module in an industrial gateway, it is often called a data transmission gateway, or a protocol converter or communication manager. For a detailed description of in-place business logic, see edge computing.

 

Other features

In addition to the main modules above, a gateway also often configures its functional user interface, either with buttons, a command line (via Telnet or a serial port), or a graphical interface (such as a built-in WEB Server or even a panel). If the gateway has in-place business logic, it may also need tools to load the script files, configuration files, and so on that are required by the local business logic.

As a remote device, self-maintenance of 4G industrial gateway is also very important. In general, it is required to make use of the advantages of its own connection to the server to automatically download its own software update package from the server and complete the update. Some Settings and configuration work should also be completed through remote login, so as to reduce the cost of on-site maintenance of dispatched personnel and improve the response speed to user needs.

网关和路由器之间的区别

文章目录 : 技术相关

网关是充当转换代理的计算机系统或设备。网关是两个系统之间的转换器,它们使用不同的通信协议,数据格式或语言,甚至是完全不同的体系结构。与简单传达信息的网桥不同,网关重新打包它们收到的信息以满足预期系统的需要。那么网关和路由器之间的区别是什么?

网关和路由器之间的区别如下:

路由器的作用是连接不同的网络并传输信息。根据用途,可分为:接入,企业级,骨干级,太比特,多WAN和3G无线等。

网关

网关可以是路由器,交换机或PC。对于同一网段内的通信,不必涉及网关。只有当主机和非本地网段设备通信时,才需要将所有数据包发送到网关设备,然后通过网关设备转发或路由它们。

路由器是一个网络层系统。一般来说,市场上的路由器分为两类,一类是单协议路由器,另一类是多协议路由器。路由器可以转换数据格式,成为与协议不同的网络互连的必要设备。

网关与路由的关系可以表示为:网关是网络连接的基础,路由是网络连接的桥梁。

路由器使用静态或动态路由来确定网络之间的最短路径。静态路由需要管理员手动设置,动态路由USES协议以动态发现网络之间的路径并确定最短路径。通常,静态路由用于小型网络,动态路由用于大型复杂网络。

现在,路由器集成了网关功能,因此路由器也具有网关功能。

网关和路由器之间的区别

从网关和路由器的定义来看,如果只连接两个网络,则只需要一个网关。

假设只有两个网络:网络A和网络B.

为了使网络A和网络B能够通信,只使用网关连接两个网络,因为只有两个网络,并且不需要确定网络之间的最短路径。

如果需要连接多个网络,为了确保网络的可靠性,需要将网络结构设计为完整网络或部分网络。通过这种方式,网络之间的通信需要两个设备,网关和路由器。由于当前路由器集成了网关的功能,因此只能使用一个设备路由器。